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Metal and Chemical Concentrations In Local Water Sources; A Study of Health In Apis mellifera Colonies.
Numerous studies indicate pesticides play a large part in colony collapse disorder (CCD) among Apis sp. (honey bee) colonies. Many studies on large-scale agriculture production have reported valuable data regarding the impact of chemical use in crop fields on hive health; however, fewer studies have looked into the effects of these chemicals in urban bee keeping sites.
The EPA has placed regulations on agriculture regarding what, when, where, and how much of a pesticide they can apply to a crop field. Urban areas aren’t assigned these limitations. Insecticides, fungicides, and herbicides can be used as often and as heavily as the home owner wishes. These chemicals then wash into the local water source. When the bees use this water for ingesting, storing in honey, or for cooling the hive, they’re introducing numerous and potentially lethal chemicals to the heart of their hive. Analysis of these urban environments and the water supplies therein will provide valuable information about the toxicity in the hives and contribute to the efforts to solve CCD.